Saturday, June 20, 2020
Rosebuds and Sinuous Rills The Romantic Fragment of Orientalism in Samuel Taylor Coleridges Kubla Khan and Citizen Kane by Orson Welles - Literature Essay Samples
The debate over the fragmentary nature of Samuel Taylor Coleridges poem Kubla Khan has continued from the time the poem was written in 1797 to the present day. Some critics believe Kubla Khan to be a complete work in its totality, while others argue that it is merely an unfinished fragment, a curiosity. The reductionist view of Kubla Khan as an incomplete novelty does Coleridge grave disservice. On the other hand, Coleridges own description of his poem as a fragment, as well as the chaotic disconnectedness of the poem itself, makes it difficult to call the work finished in any conventional sense. Instead, Kubla Khan may represent the authors own understanding of the mysterious and fractional world of the Orient. The Romantics were deeply fascinated with the Orient, and always depicted it as a dense and elusive myth rather than an actual location. The Western Romantics depicted Orientals as primitive, morally undeveloped, and changeless, but they were intensely drawn to the Orient pr ecisely because it provided an alternative to the West. In this otherizing of the Orient, Romantics fashioned a view of Orientals that mirrored their own culture, rather than basing their perceptions on any legitimate truth about the Orient. The Orient became the paradoxically attractive symbol of the darker, more sinister elements of Western society-a conflated fragment based upon Western projection and desire. The Orientalism evident in Kubla Khan is still relevant today as a lens through which to view Modern texts such as the film Citizen Kane. Modern interpretations of Orientalism have been expanded to include not just the racialized and different Other, but aspects of the Self as well.The fragmentation of the Orient is twofold. First, filtered through the subjective lens of Orientalism, Occidental knowledge of the Orient will always be incomplete. And secondly, though the Orientalist attempts to write about the Orient, he deliberately and conscious separates himself from it as well, so that he is inherently separated from the object of his text. Coleridges Kubla Khan is a poetic incarnation if the Romantic Fragment, what E. S. Shaffer calls an epic fragment. In his poem, Coleridge includes a Preface titled Of the Fragment of Kubla Khan. The word fragment refers to the poem itself, which he considers a psychological curiosity rather than a finished work, but it also refers to Coleridges own inability to capture the entirety of the images which rose up before him as thingswithout any consciousness of effort. While asleep in an opium trance, Coleridges mind, as if possessed, composes for him two or three hundred lines, so that when he awakes, the poem exists already as a whole-what had been originally, as it were, given to him. His duty as a poet, therefore, is merely to recollect and record what was already a complete composition. However, the perfect vision which appears to the poet while he is unconscious mysteriously dissipates once he attempts to captur e it, like the Fragment of which the Romantic Artist has a subconscious understanding but whose completion will invariably elude possibility. Just as the poet decrees and then creates the verses in his poem, so In Xanadu did Kubla Khan/ a stately pleasure-dome decree. Fred L. Milne states, If indeed Kubla Khan becamea poem about the creative process set in the general context of the mind and its activities, then whereis the creative power to be found? In the poem, that function is best fulfilled by Kubla Khan himself, for it is he alone who creates in the mind-landscape. The Orientalist studies the Orient to distinguish himself from it, and his writings are the proof that he exists outside of his text. Coleridge enters the fantastical world of Xanadu but establishes within the poems first line that it is Kubla Khan the Muslim leader of the Mongol Empire, not Coleridge the Occidental poet. Coleridge is merely a visitor of a world already decreed for him; he consciously fragments hims elf from the subject of his work. The tone of the poem reflects its wonderstruck, disconcerted narrator, who finds himself in a bizarre and foreign land which fascinates him simply because he cannot fully comprehend it. The poem consists of images that emerge, and the reader is supposed to allow the imagery to speak for itself. Attempting to analyze or explain the outlandish and mystifying Oriental world would yield nothing in translation, for the rational Western observer cannot, by merit of his rationalism, understand the emotive, occultish, and spiritualist Orient. The caverns measureless to man reflect the immeasurability of the Xanadus chimerical scenery, and the poets continued use of contradictory language, like sunnycaves of ice and I would build that dome in air, calls to mind the difficulty that rational, deductive Western language encounters when endeavoring to describe the alien East. Occidental language must resort to using logically incomprehensible paradoxes to evoke the logically incomprehensible Orient. Kubla Kahn says he would build that dome in air; Coleridge the poet builds his own because he presupposes the symbolic meaning of the Asiatic images he represents. The England in which Coleridge lived had designated meanings for images like the Oriental harem, rife with women who play dulcimers, odalisques who wail for their demon lovers, and Abyssian virgins who sing of Paradise. The poem which arose under Coleridges eyelids in slumber was built in the air of his imagination. Despite its outlandish and extravagent images, the Western reader legitimizes this groundless work because he had already dismissed the Oriental as inherently different and inferior to the rational, virtuous European. Because the Oriental lived in a world completely of his own, and because such a world was by definition paradoxical to the principles of the West, Oriental images did not need to be understood or even tolerated by the West. Coleridge asks readers of Kubla Khan to act as spectators like himself rather than as participants. He invites readers into Xanadu by relying on the air-built clichÃÆ'Ã ©s and conventions already a part of the Occidental vocabulary used to denote and signify the Orient. The use of paradoxical but corresponding opposites in his poetry is what Richard Harter Fogle calls the Romantic picturesque, a combination of paradoxical images which resolve themselves through a process of signification that relies upon the mind of the reader-the interpreter of symbols. The paradoxical picturesque reappears in its modern form in Orson Welles seminal film Citizen Kane, which shows visual fragments of Charles Foster Kanes life-from childhood until death-with the purpose of conveying a sense of his character to the audience. Of course, by the end of the film the moral of the story is that Kanes life is still a mystery despite being played out in full on the silver screen, and that perhaps it is impossible for any persons life to b e fully explained. Thompson, the journalist who embarks on the quest to discover the meaning of Rosebud, concedes by the films end that he has failed to unlock the mystery. Charles Foster Kane was a man who got everything he wanted, and then lost it. Maybe Rosebud was something he couldnt get or something he lost, but it wouldnt have explained anything. I dont think any word explains a mans life. No-I guess Rosebud is just a piece in a jigsaw puzzle-a missing piece. Charles Kane is the American Kubla Khan, a man with the power to control public opinion through his empire of newspapers, and just like the Khan in Coleridges poem, the Kane in Welles film is shrouded in mystery and contradiction. Kane is a bundle of binary oppositions: he is a capitalist tycoon who monopolizes the newspaper industry while fighting to bust the monopolies of big businesses, a steadfast champion of liberty and progressivism who feels it is his duty to control the masses through propagandist journalism, a m an who did not know the meaning of love but above all wanted to be loved by others. The movie conveys Kanes persona through the juxtaposition of opposing images, similar to the way Coleridge conveys Xanadu. The Romantic Fragment also appears in Citizen Kane, in both senses as it appears in Kubla Khan. First, the movie makes a point of showing the impossibility of ever truly knowing Charles Kane because his life is shown to us through the fragmented images of others recollections. He is brought back to life through the memories and accounts of his contemporaries, but their reports are deeply influenced by their personal experiences and the reliability of their narratives is questionable. Citizen Kane is also fragmented in the second sense, in its fragmentation and distinction between viewer and subject. Like the reader of Kubla Khan, the viewer of Citizen Kane is a spectator rather than a participant. Compounding this distinction is the fact that the character of Kane is meant to be distinguished by his difference from the viewer, rather than his similarity. Kane is an anomaly, a man who led an extraordinary life and who provided no explanation or justification for any of his actions. Viewers are not meant to relate to Kane; rather, they are supposed to relate to those characters in the movie who recall Kane with a sense of puzzled bewilderment. Like those characters, the viewer is meant to be left in the dark. Citizen Kane opens with the camera focusing in on dark, smoky, and shrouded shots of Xanadu, and the movie ends with the same sequence of shots in reverse, as the camera pans out away from Xanadu. The movie comes full circle, and the viewer ends up in literally the same place.It is not surprising that the same Oriental elements that evoked Kubla Khan in Coleridges poem resurface in different guises in Modern works such as Citizen Kane. Orientalism more accurately reflects the dominant cultures own psychology than it does any actual Oriental cultural or geopolitical awareness. Orientalism is a fragmented concept, a conflated grouping of otherized traits into an ism with its locus in the East, a place that Ezra Pound called a vortex of epiphany and which T. S. Elliot associated with hope, peace, and sympathy. As long as it exists as a Romantic Fragment, a concept intended to assume the unknowability of all things, it will continue to be conventional Orientalism as we know it. If the Orient remains a myth rather than a place, the West will continue to maintain a sense of false supremacy through the subjugating attitude fortified by a view of the Other as a mirror of the undesirable, dark, or taboo aspects of the Self. Orientalism is indeed an epic fragment-one that must be repaired, bridged, and closed before it can disappear.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
The Exploration of Doubt in Religion The well-known philosopher Voltaire once said, Ã¢â¬Å"doubt . . . is an illness that comes from knowledge and leads to madnessÃ¢â¬ . Many people are raised with a belief instilled in them. As people mature and learn more about the world, many start to question their religious identities. Many people donÃ¢â¬â¢t doubt GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence publicly because he has a huge presence in most communities. People fear judgement. I realize as I grow older that itÃ¢â¬â¢s common to doubt and question your religion that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve committed to by performing religious practices such as, church and praying. Ã¢â¬Å"The Lightening is a yellow ForkÃ¢â¬ by Emily Dickinson, Ã¢â¬Å"UphillÃ¢â¬ by Christina Rossetti, and Ã¢â¬Å"Unholy Sonnet, After the PrayingÃ¢â¬ by Mark Jarman portray the doubt many religious people develop of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence when exploring oneÃ¢â¬â¢s religious identity. These poems will encourage the reader to believe in a welcoming, forgiving and limitless God existing despite the doubts. Ã¢â¬Å"The Lightning is a yellow ForkÃ¢â¬ by Emily Dickinson conveys the lack of knowledge people have towards God that leads to the uncertainty of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence. Dickinson states, Ã¢â¬Å"the apparatus of the darkÃ¢â¬ (7). This partially revealed apparatus and the sketchy illustration of the mansion in the heavens that are Ã¢â¬Å"never quite disclosed and never quite concealedÃ¢â¬ (6-7). This symbolizes the boundless, unforeseeable and mystifying power of God. No matter how close one looks at the Ã¢â¬ËmansionsÃ¢â¬â¢ in the heavens, one will neverShow MoreRelatedSummary Of Gods Grandeur845 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdistinctive poetic exploration of religious faith in his poems. However, paradoxically he also challenges the role religion has played in making Victorians repress their natural desires, which compels them to doubt GodÃ¢â¬â¢s ability. These are clearly evidenced in two of his famous Pe trarchan sonnets, the nature poem, Ã¢â¬ËGodÃ¢â¬â¢s GrandeurÃ¢â¬â¢ (1877), and the Ã¢â¬Ëterrible sonnetÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËCarrion ComfortÃ¢â¬â¢ (1885-1887), both were written in Victorian late 19th century. Even though Hopkins never doubts the presence of GodRead MoreThemes in Early American Literature Essays1568 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhile a number of themes can be found in early American literature, the only dominant and recurring themes are exploration, hardship, and religion. It is these central ideas around which all early American writing is based. The first prominent theme that appeared in the literature of Christopher Columbus and the many great explorers that followed in his footsteps was that of exploration. With the mission to sail West across the Atlantic Ocean and report back with their findings, these explorersRead MoreDo Science And Religion Conflict?1719 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessame riddle. Both the system and the points of science and religion appear to be changed. Science is thought to be more connected to the material part for goodness sake, where religion is concerned with the otherworldly. These are only two of the distinctions to be talked about in this paper, as I endeavor to answer the subject of Do Science and religion conflict? Science and religion both make emotions going from suspicion, doubt, and clash to those of admiration, resistance, and sootheRead MoreChristopher Columbus : A Dominant Figure1366 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesplants, population as well as cultures, the Columbian Exchange was created. (Boundless.com) Different kinds of resources were shared after the exploration of the New World, which definitely brought European countries benefits. As a result, increasing number of European colonies came to North America, trying to find new chances for lives. However, there is no doubt that sacrifice was made by specific group of people, especially native Americans. European shared Native AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s resources, occupied theirRead MoreUnification of Spain1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesto expand their minds and their wealth with what the Ã¢â¬Å"unknownÃ¢â¬ world had to Ã¢â¬Å"offerÃ¢â¬ . When I say offer, I mean what they could take and run with without consequence. The Europeans wanted to Ã¢â ¬Å"exposeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"enlightenÃ¢â¬ the new world people with their religion. When I say Ã¢â¬Å"exposeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"enlightenÃ¢â¬ , I mean force the new world people to convert to Christianity or they would be slowly tortured to death or burned at the stake. Portugal, one of the all mighty Iberian Sates, was in a hard-hitting competitionRead MoreThe Discovery Of Space Exploration1560 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfor calendars and religion. Our advancing technology allows us to probe, and explore. It would be a shame not to go searching, given that it is a very human thing to do. There is no doubt that the prospects of discovering an alien organism or a second Earth are exciting. And we keep getting closer. History is flooded with major astronomical discovery. Of course, this had not been without controversy (as Galileo knew all too well). The modern controversy regarding space exploration is not of religiousRead MoreManaging Religious Conflict in Therapy1722 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPsychotherapy Ryan Hagen UMASS Lowell Abstract This paper discusses the relationship of religion and psychology within the setting of interpersonal dynamic psychotherapy. It raises the question of whether and to what extent religion should be included in a therapeutic setting. Varying perspectives on this issue are reviewed, followed by an examination of the consequences of addressing religion within therapy. Several examples are offered of potential pit falls a therapist may encounter inRead More Reports of Gods Death Are a Bit Premature1367 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Reports of Gods Death Are a Bit Premature Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Arguing the death of God is a debate that will last until eternity. Regardless of exploration or religious zeal there are far too many human viewpoints leaning towards the idea of and the strong need for faith. Believing in God for some is as natural as walking upright and it would seem that through such unquestionable faith God would somehow still be alive. But perhaps He is only surviving with the help of life support. Ã For exampleRead MoreIs Weber s Idea Of Economic Traditionalism1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestraditionalism analysis relevant to the study of religion? Introduction The core of research on religion at present is of no doubt touching Max WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas on economic traditionalism. Weber in Solimano (2012: 42) talked about Ã¢â¬Å"the importance of religion, especially the Protestant ethicÃ¢â¬ in economic life. By venturing into the field of sociology of religion, Weber further succeeded in arousing many scholarsÃ¢â¬â¢ interest in the study of different religions in the contemporary world. Agbikimi (2014: 30)Read MoreTheme Of Faith In Young Goodman Brown1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswho is Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦aptly namedÃ¢â¬ in the story, tries to persuade him to not go on his journey, but he cannot be swayed from his exploration. Not only is Faith his wife, but a symbol of his faith to God as well. BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s weakness can be seen when he said, Ã¢â¬Å"My love and my FaithÃ¢â¬ ¦dost thou doubt me already, and we but three months married?Ã¢â¬ Just like his marriage to Faith, BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s faith in his religion is new. Thus, causing Brown to give in into his curiosity to see what is on the other side of good. When Brown leaves
Monday, May 18, 2020
Karina A. Burr Instructor Barbra Green Writing 102 11 September 2015 Cathedral by Raymond Carver In this short story by Raymond Carver begins with a man whose wife invited a good friend over named Robert and is blind. Before Roberts Arrival, the wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s husband, whose name is Bub, does not know what to make out of his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s good friend Robert coming over to their house. Carver utilizes a story of a blind man who changes BubÃ¢â¬â¢s outlook in life. Through the narrators changing character, theme of loneliness and jealousy, and the cathedral being a symbol at the end of the story, this brings together a powerful message in the story when one blind man and one man with sight share an evening together drawing out a cathedral. The theme of this story plays a strong role of physical and psychological blindness. The narrator has sight and is not blind. But it seems as if the narrator is blinded by his own personality. He is too quick to judge a blind man who he has not even met yet but judge a blind man because of what he saw on television . Bub, the narrator says, Ã¢â¬Å"And his being blind bothered me. My idea of blindness came from the movies. In the movies, the blind moved slowly and never laughed. Sometimes they were led by seeing dogs-eye dogs. (Carver 299). It is also seen that Robert always refers the man as Ã¢â¬Å"the blind manÃ¢â¬ rather than Robert. The narrator sees him not as human-like because of his disability. The author lets the audience know that even though a man mayShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfrom, or trying to bury alive. Cathedral, written by Raymond Carver, takes place in the early 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. Originally published in The Atlantic Monthly in 1981. Carver slightly revised the story and re-released it in 1983. At a time when the blue collar working class lived paycheck to paycheck, working hard for newfound luxuries such as color television, this short story is humorous and eye-opening for the reader. For adults ranging from thirty to forty years old, the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s were possibly a ghostly, hauntingRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral 1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCharacter Analysis in Raymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ : The Narrator Literature has the potential to act as a mirror by presenting peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lived experiences, expectations, and perceptions through characters. Such is what can be deciphered through the analysis of different characters in Raymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s story Ã¢â¬Å"Cathedral.Ã¢â¬ This paper focuses on the narrator of the story portrayed by the author as blind, which is used metaphorically not to imply physical blindness, but the inability to have reasonedRead MoreAnalysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral 1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Gabrielle Sobolewski English 200 Professor Ruth Jennison 11/12/15 The short story Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ by Raymond Carver is told from the perspective of a first-person narrator. Throughout the story, the narrator is self-absorbed in his own thoughts and emotions and fails in his willingness to overlook personal insecurities in order to accommodate othersÃ¢â¬â¢ discomfort, i.e. predominantly his wife and the blind man. In general, the story lacks figurative language and is told in short, directRead MoreAnalysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral 970 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Raymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ , we meet the character who is never named, and who is known as the narrator to us. Although the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s character changed towards the end, and we donÃ¢â¬â¢t really learn much after the change of his personality, it is still a gradual change that took place. The narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude is very important in the story because it revolves around him and the way he views things. This short story is about a m an who is married to a woman, and this woman has been friendsRead MoreAnalysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral 943 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Raymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ , the short story is told by a character within the story. The first-person point of view gives us a transparent visual of an important time in the narratorsÃ¢â¬â¢ life. The narrator, who is Ã¢â¬Å"un-namedÃ¢â¬ in the beginning of the story, uses blunt, flawless and a particular choice of words. This gives us as the reader a deeper connection with the narrator. The narrator begins this story by taking us through the changes he go through with the uneasy feeling of having a blind-manRead MoreAnalysis Of Raymond Carver s The Cathedral 863 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages One of the Raymond Carver story where we can find a lot of religion symbols; it is Ã¢â¬Å"Cathedral.Ã¢â¬ The story develops an ironic situation in which a blind man teaches a sighted man to truly Ã¢â¬Å"seeÃ¢â¬ for the first tim e. Near the end of the story, Carver has these two characters work together on a drawing of a cathedral, which serves as the symbolic heart of the story. The cathedral represents true sight, the ability to see beyond the surface to the true meaning that lies within. The narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s drawingRead MoreAn Analysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral1794 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages A Cynics Enlightenment Raymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s short-story Cathedral is outwardly about a pessimistic man, whose wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s blind visitor named Robert changes the narrators predisposing perception of the world and awakes a new view on life in the process. But inwardly, the story is about the desperate need for connection between these three characters, which isnÃ¢â¬â¢t feasible do to the emotional-detachment by the narrator. In the beginning, the narrator is hindered by his prejudices which doesn t allow himRead MoreAnalysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral1524 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAs if someone has unlocked his prison cell to liberate him of his stereotypical point of view. The protagonist of Raymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ was an individual whose stagnant mind has blind him from truly seeing the aspects and characteristics of people around him. Before meeting his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s blind friend whose name is Robert, the protagonist perceives reality with a stereotypical mind-set shaped by m isleading information from movies. Hence, he make judgement about other people without ever settingRead MoreAnalysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral2364 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesmost. The same could be said about people who are limited by one or more of their six senses and are judged by the majority of the population who are not limited and make preconceived notions about these limitations which can bind them. Raymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ explores many literary devices that reveal the pre conceived perception towards people with physical limitations without understanding the individual first, which is still a problem today. The protagonist, the narrator is closed mindedRead MoreAnalysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral 1340 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRaymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s characters were considered to be very much like him: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢on the edge: of poverty, alcoholic self-destruction, lonelinessÃ¢â¬ (Mays 32). His short story Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ is about a young couple, who have a visitor coming to stay with them. This visitor, Robert, is the wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s friend, and he is blind. The narrator, the husband, has never met someone who is blind, was bothered by that. To him, being blind meant constantly needing help from others. His depiction of blindness was what he has seen
Friday, May 15, 2020
Goals of Executive Coaching The principle of coaching is to provide the tools and practices which alter the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s structure of interpretation (Flaherty, 2011). As a matter of convention, the traditional coaching relationship is generally focused on the achievement of specific executive related goals. The coaching process will normally address the individual behavior that causes managerial or personal conflict and attempt to modify that behavior. Today, one of the key roles of a leader is to help their subordinates modify their behavior to improve their productivity, contribute more to the growth of the company, and to become a peak performer within the organization (Kilburg, 1996). The coaching process is further designed toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The client must be ready and eager to buy-into the coaching agreement. The client must have a clear and defined goal that he or she wants to achieve. One of the most common detracting factors is an unmotivated or uncommitted client (Dagley, 2010). The client must also firmly trust and believe the coach will be able to assist in the attainment of their goals. Meetings between the client and the coach should be held to develop the foundation needed to prepare for the coaching process. The foundation of the process establishes a relationship anchored in trust, respect, communication, and conviction between both parties. The client may not be open to accepting what the coach has to offer or the client may have unrealistic expectations of what the coaching process can provide. These discrepancies should be discussed in the initial meetings between coach and client. If the differences are not overcome and continue, a negative coaching outcome is likely to occur. The Organization The demand for individualized developmental attention within organizations has created the need for executive coaching (Newsom Dent, 2010). The coach and the client should be aware of any systemic or cultural issues within the organization. The perception of coaching in the organization is a major predictor of success or failure of the coaching process. Senior management must buy in to the coaching initiative. Without this support, allShow MoreRelatedWe Start By Defining Executive Coaching Essay1388 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdefining executive coaching. Kilburg (1996) defines the executive coachee as a person who has management responsibility in an organization. He defines the coach as a consultant who uses behavioral techniques to help the executive coachee achieve a mutually defined set of goals. He defines the coaching relationship as a supportive relationship between the executive coachee and the coach. Finally, he defines the coaching goals as objectives to improve the executiv e coacheeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance, executive coacheeÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreOverview. Change Article. The Change Article By Grant (2014),1196 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages(HR) issue; executive coaching. It parades an analysis of executive coaching in times of change that eventuates into an opinionated, yet empirical outcome. Some assumptions asserted in this article include; that change is not a level of intensity but a Boolean style aspect of HR (yes or no), small sample sizes are justifiable, and the value of providing a one-sided article persuades readers to support this side. With these assumptions in mind, Grant (2014) hypothesises that executives undergoingRead MoreHrm/326 Employee Development Essay1319 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmotivated is the key to a successful, highly productive workforce. Coaching If managers obtain the skills necessary to coach their staff the coaching can translate to increased employee development in a more effective way. According to Frankovelgia (2010) Ã¢â¬Å"Coaching focuses on helping another person learn in ways that let him or her keep growing afterward.Ã¢â¬ The purpose of coaching an employee is so they can achieve work related goals by broadening their thinking, increase their effectiveness and identifyingRead MoreHow Coaching and Mentoring Help Employees and Students Succeed1352 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCoaching and Mentoring Vital to Success Dineace D Minnick Colorado Technical University Coaching and Mentoring Vital to Success In my opinion I feel that to be successful you truly need to line up people around you who are will to Coach and Mentor you. It also looks good for you to be seen as a Coach and Mentor. I see this as an excellent way to always have feedback and direction to help reach goals and succeed to levels of excellence. I chose this topic because my ultimate goal, withinRead MoreCoaching Is A Professional Relationship That Helps People Bridge The Gap Between Where They Are Now1663 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCoaching is providing a professional relationship that helps people bridge the gap between where they are now and where they want to be or ought to be (International Coach Federation, 2015). Leaders who coach their employees and followers look for ways to help them improve their leadership skills and potential. Active coaches seek to find solutions and strategies that will help discover or clarify what must be achieved while holding the person accountable. As a leader, one must reflect on waysRead MoreThe Psychology of Coaching: Systemic Psychodynamic Coaching1427 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSystemic Psychodynamic Coaching: The psychology of coaching can be understood as the efficient application of behavioral science to improve work performance, life experience, and the wellbeing of people, groups, and organizations. This technique is used to enhance these various aspects for people who do not possess medically significant mental health challenges or unusual distress levels. Coaching psychology is a relatively new educational and applied sub-discipline even though psychologists haveRead MoreHow Did the Decision to Conduct an ROI Study Influence the Design of Coaching Program1112 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Question 1. How did the decision to conduct an ROI study influence the design of coaching program. Nations Hotel Corporation is one of the reputed USA based hotel company, with an international presence in 15 countries worldwide. Hospitality industries are quiet competitive in nature and todayÃ¢â¬â¢s success rule of hospitality includes knowledge, customer satisfaction and operational efficiency which provides pleasure of stay and departure to their guests. Any addition or subtraction in theseRead MoreWrite a Short Report About the Purpose and Nature of Coaching1134 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA REPORT ON COACHING FOR PERFORMANCE AT GDP. Coaching as a performance tool means different things to different people. For the purpose of this report however, we will stick to the two definitions below. What is coaching? Coaching is a powerful tool that can help you to make changes in your business or career, improve your performance, enhance your relationships with others or develop specific skills. (http://www.personal-coaching-information.com/what-is-coaching.html). Also it can be defined asRead MoreThe Challenges Of Virtual Team Collaboration995 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The organizational best practices fall into four primary categories, namely Executive support, HR Practices, Leadership Strength, and Team Structure (Gratton Erickson, 2007). Executive Support: Investing in Signature relationship practices The success or failure of virtual team collaboration in organizations is often reflected in the philosophies and support of its executives. For example, when company executives demonstrate collaborative behaviors and create collaborative environments whereRead MoreCoaching Across Cultures : A Paradigm Shift1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCulture Coaching across cultures is a paradigm shift, an enlargement of coaching that adapts a broader view to help leaders be successful in a global environment (Rosinski, 2003). An organizations culture represents its unique characteristics e.g. observable behaviors, unrealized norms, values and beliefs. Schein (1985) defines organizational culture as: The deeper level of basic assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of an organization, that operate unconsciously, and that define
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Pharmaceutical Industry: Chemical Synthesis Production of Acetylsalicylic Acid I. Introduction Pharmaceutical industry is one of the biggest industry in the world as it involves drugs and medications - something that is very stable in terms of demand. This can be proven by the amount of sales as of 2012. Figure 1.1 shows the breakdown of the market of the pharmaceutical industry worldwide. However, aside from the production and synthesis of drugs and medications, the industry is also involved in the research and further development of drugs and medications. Because of the effect of the products of the industry to its market, the industry is subjected to a lot of laws and regulations. These laws and regulations must be met before their products are sold in the market. Figure 1.1 Pharmaceutical Industry Sales as of 2012 Research and development, which constitutes particular phases, in the pharmaceutical industry could either be working towards improvement of existing medicine or creating new drugs for better treatment of diseases. With the help of advances in life sciences such as genomics, molecular biology, and the like, diagnosis of certain diseases are more precise leading to less likely failure of the development of the treatment (Riboud, 2014). In addition, technological breakthroughs such as new tools, smartphones, and information services in recent years have vastly assisted in the analysis of the efficiency of these therapeutical treatments. However, theseShow MoreRelatedA Diverse And Sustainable Compound Library For Aid Drug Development And Sales1185 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmore depth within the body of the profile. Pharmaceutical companies need robust and high quality compound libraries to develop and market new prescription drugs. To help these companies develop top-tier compound libraries, Carmolex Inc. has developed disruptive, enabling technologies that facilitate the large-scale design, synthesis, and validation of small molecule protein antagonists. In doing so, we offer our clients the largest, most robust chemical libraries in the world, which is a criticalRead MoreThe Environmental Impact Of Pharmaceuticals1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHealth Care and Societal Costs of Disease: The Role of Pharmaceuticals, 2013, para. 1). However, the benefit of having healthier individuals in the workforce means that more work is able to be completed in a shorter period of time, because the workers are healthier, therefore taking fewer sick days (Reducing the Health Care and Societal Costs of Disease: The Role of Pharmaceuticals, 2013, para. 2). The environmental impact of pharmaceuticals is not so pleasant. Every medicine taken must eventuallyRead MoreMedicinal Chemsitry1138 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhat is Medicinal chemistry? 3Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...Body: The pharmaceutical industry Global generics Chemistry in a nutshell 4Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Conclusion End of academic essay In Medicinal chemistry , the chemist attempts to design and synthesize medicine or a pharmaceutical agent which will benefit humanity .Additionally Oxford defineRead MoreThe Synthesis Of Gold Nanoparticles982 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconvenient, simple, economically viable and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with carboxymethyl gum kodagogu (CMGK). Carboxymethyl gum kondagogu is a nontoxic and renewable. It is used as reducing, stabilizing and capping agent for the synthesis of AuNPs without using any chemical reducing agent. The effect of various parameters such as concentration of HAuCl4 and CMKG and reaction time for the synthesis of AuNPs was studying. The green synthesized AuNPs were characterizedRead MoreThe Discovery Of Polymer And Plastic Demand1249 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages under the name Ã¢â¬ËmacromoleculeÃ¢â¬â¢ (Chemistryexplained.com, 2016). Nowadays, polymer and plastic demand is even higher than that of copper, aluminium, and even steel , due to their versatile applications in many different industries (Matse1.matse.illinois.edu, 2016). Polymer synthesis can be either synthetic or natural, and can produce many forms of polymers, depending on the involved monomers, and the intended purpose for said polymers (Essentialchemicalindustry.org, 2016). This process involves threeRead MoreComponents of the pharmaceutical industry manufacturing and distribution chain A pharmaceutical700 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesComponents of the pharmaceutical industry manufacturing and distribution chain A pharmaceutical supply chain is made up of the following stages- Ã¢â¬ ¢ Primary Manufacturing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Secondary Manufacturing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Market Warehouses Ã¢â¬ ¢ Distribution Centre Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wholesalers Ã¢â¬ ¢ Retailers /Hospitals. Primary manufacturing Primary manufacturing is the process of production of the AI(Active Ingredient) or API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient). This process is comprised of multiple complex chemical synthesis also someRead MoreNanotechnology Essay716 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesNow a days, Nanotechnology is widely used in many industrial areas such as, computing, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, textile industries and many more. The major challenge is not only to make these materials smaller in size in order to store or process more information but also to optimize the synthesis process. However, the additional key point of the nanotechnology revolution within the next decades is that it will have the capability to use the advantage of mesoscopic properties of such Nano sizedRead MoreThird Quarter Chemistry Research Paper1789 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Rachel Hamilton Chemistry 11 Mrs. Thompson March 16, 2016 Pharmaceuticals, although known under many different names, have been an important part of civilization since the Ancient times. They are extremely important in the everyday life of many Canadians who deal with illnesses, diseases, and pain. Chemistry is an integral part of medicines. Were it not for medicines and the pharmaceutical industry, the world would be a very different, very unhealthy place. Medicines are easilyRead MoreMicrobiological Impacts And Impact Of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals919 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEndocrine disrupting chemicals also known as (EDCs) are hormonal chemicals, known for their alteration or blockage of organismÃ¢â¬â¢s hormones. (Trachsel, 2008) Hence, these chemicals are defined as xenobiotics, which refers to foreign bodies or agents to an organism system. (Trachsel, 2008) These EDCs found in aquatic environment have a variety of harm effects on animals, humans and or the ecosystem in general, that can differ the hemostasis due to the elimination of natural occurring hormones in animalsRead MorePreparation of Acetanilide1398 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesacetanilide. Acetanilide is in the general category of organic chemicals, since its main element is carbon. More specifically, it is an amide since it contains a carbon double bonded to an oxygen atom, while that same carbon is also connected to a nitrogen atom. It is also classified as an aromatic compound because the six carbon phenyl ring is contained in its molecular structure. Its chemical formula is CH3CONHC6H5. This chemical goes by numerous other names, including acetaminobenzene and acetanil
DBQ # 6 Slavery and Sectional Attitudes One effect on the issue was that the economy in the south was fueled by cultivation of staple crops that required slaves for labor. In the South slavery wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t thought as an evil as in the North because to the Southerners defense the slaves in their opinion were treaty in contrast to workers in England and peasants that were Irish, also the end of slave trade brought higher value to the slaves causing their owners to be less harsh because they were more valuable. Although slavery fueled the economy in the South it was not the same in the North therefore there was no complete dire need for slavery, and although the slaves probably werenÃ¢â¬â¢t treated as bad as the north had thought they still saw it asÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Owners or bounty hunters that tore up their papers gave the people no proof. Therefore they were able to go to Free states and bring back a free African American and claim them as slaves. Document G, is a catechism for slaves, speaking on how slaves should behave, using God. This catechism made sure that slaves knew that they should be obedient and work for Gods will. It made it as though God gave them the privilege of having a master or mistress and that all this was in the bible. Document H, is a poster of Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin. Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin and the slave laws that allowed bounty hunters to hunt slaves in the north along with criminalizing those that hid or support slaves in any manner brought the issue of slavery to a far greater public in the north. This exposure to the slave issue and the many instances of violence greatly angered the northern population. Those that did not care about slavery did care about armed gangs marauding over the country side. Some instances became very bloody. There was an instance in which a town refused to release a freed slave in to the hands of bounty hunters and federal Marshall had to be brought in to escort the now free slave and the bounty hunters back south. There were bounty hunters that were killed by anger mobs and people that were beaten, tortured, and killed by bounty hunters. They were bounty hunters that killed other bounty hunters to make off with their capturedShow MoreRelatedThe Election Of 1848 And Emerging Sectional Divide Between The North And The South Over The Issue Of Slavery1708 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSemester Long Research Paper The election of 1848 revealed and emerging sectional divide between the north and the south over the issue of slavery. The was the 16th presidential election held on November 7, 1848. Zachary Taylor, who was a member of the Whig party won over Martin Van Buren of the free soil party. Slavery was defined as a legal or economic system in which principles of property law were applied to humans allowing them to be classified as property, to be owned, bought and sold accordinglyRead MoreSectional issues leading up to the Civil War, how the North South and West felt about states rights, tariffs, western land policy, mexican war, secession and how all these linked back to slavery.1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Civil war was the most momentous and crucial period of time in the history of America. Not only did this war bring an end to slavery but also paved way for numerous social and political changes. The country had already been torn by the negative trend in race relations and the numerous cases of slave uprisings were taking their toll on the country s political and social structure. The country was predominately divided up into 3 sections, the North, the South, and the West. Each of these groupsRead MoreSectional Issues And ItsÃ¢â¬â¢ Impact On American Society. Sectional1041 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSectional Issues and ItsÃ¢â¬â¢ Impact on American Society Sectional issues have been dealt within American society since the colonial era, where various groups would try to out-resource one another in the hopes of not only survival but in hopes of profit. However, in the sectional issues of 1844-1860, the conflicts presented continue to exist to modern times while simultaneously changing the overall perspective of what it means to be an American. The freedom of slaves was still in question by the endRead MoreThe North And South Were Divided Into Two Sections Essay914 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDuring the Antebellum period, the North and South were divided into two sections. The North opposed slavery while the South believed that it ultimately benefitted society, creating conflicting views on many different issues. The issues that were brought about during the antebellum period between the North and the South were centered around what type of societies slavery created. Although the North and South had some similarities during the antebellum peri od, the North and South were consistentlyRead MoreCompromise Essay1263 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstruggling to find a way to solve their sectional tensions brought on by slavery in the south. The south had always had an economy based on agriculture that could not strive without their uses of slavery. They did not plan on ending slavery anytime soon, especially since it was really all they had to support themselves. They were against establishing an industrial based economy like the north had began to do in the 1820-1830Ã¢â¬â¢s. The real cause of the sectional tensions between the North and the SouthRead MoreBy the 1850s the Constitution became a source of sectional discord, ultimately contributing to the failure of the union. This tries to disprove this statement. *AP US DBQ from 19871477 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmid-1800s, many events occurred that increased sectional tension between the Northern and Southern states of the Union. These tensions ultimately resulted in the outbreak of civ il war. One thing in particular that is considered to be a source of sectional discord is the U.S. Constitution. However the Constitution itself was not a source of sectional tension that caused the failure of the Union. The failure erupted generally from the issue of slavery. combination of the people in general and the differencesRead MoreThe Decline of the Democrats1567 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesas those two groups were largely split on the issue of national versus states rights and the implementation of a national bank. As the country matured from its initial beginnings in the latter part of the 18th century, the issues of sectarian differences evolved to include key aspects of sectional proclivities between the North and the South, and the impact of those differences on the burgeoning western portion of the U.S. The South favored slavery and the economic prosperity it brought to thatRead MoreInterpreting The Consequences And Causations Of The American Civil War1058 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesInterpreting the consequences and causations of the American Civil war is a complex and multifarious issue that is defined by two predominant archetypes, the revisionist and fundamentalist viewpoints. The multiple revisionist viewpoints emphasize different interpretations of the origins and significance of the Civil War such as a Southern constitutional viewpoint, politics, economics, sectional differences between the North and South, or the great slave power conspiracy. Moreover, while some of theseRead MoreIncreased Sectional Tension between the Notrht and the South1008 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIncreased Sectional Tension Between the North and the South Between 1840 and 1860, the issue of slavery was in the spotlight of American politics. With the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s westward expansion, whether slavery should be allowed in new territories provoked a series of fierce debates between the northern free states and the southern slave states. Witnessed by the Wilmot Proviso of 1846, the publication of Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin in 1852, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, the sectional tension was continuallyRead MoreThe United States Essay1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto multiple political conflicts resulting an increase in sectionalism and eventually complete sectional division. As time progressed so did the scale of slavery in the United States. Politicians were divided over the status of slavery throughout the United states, but the acquisition of new territory provided new areas to fight the over slavery and other issues. For the most part the status of slavery within the well organized Eastern territories was decided, prohibited in the Northern States
Culture and Language are the major issues in the post colonial theory. My assignment will deal with these three factors in terms of colonial perspectives. The post colonialism mainly explores the ideas such as cultural diversity, geographical dimensions, Diasporas, race, ethnicity, marginality, hybridity, national identities, cultural transformation, changes and politics in language etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ Considerations of hybridity run the range from existential to material, political to economic, yet this discussion will not be able to tease out the extensive implications of each consideration. Rather, this discussion aims to explore the notion of hybridity theoretically, synthesizing the vast body of literature to critique essentialist notions of identity as fixed and constant. According to my understanding of Hybridity, there are three ways in which hybridity might serve as a tool for deconstructing the rigid labels that maintain social inequities through exclusion in race, language and nation. By exploring how the hybrid rejects claims of bonds within race, language, and nation, I understood that cultural studies like these are imperative in considering the politics of representation. For the purposes of this discussion, the cultural hybridity refers to the integration of cultural bodies, signs, and practices from the colonizing and the colonized cultures. The contemporary cultural landscape is an amalgam of cross-cultural influences, blended, patch-worked, and layered upon one another. Unbound and fluid, culture is hybrid and interstitial, moving between spaces of meaning. The notion of cultural hybridity has existed far before it was popularized in postcolonial theory as culture arising out of interactions between Ã¢â¬Å"colonizersÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the colonizedÃ¢â¬ . However, in this time after imperialism, globalization has both expanded the reach of Western culture, as well as allowed a process by which the West constantly interacts with the East, appropriating cultures for its own means and continually shifting its own signifiers of dominant culture. This hybridity is woven into every corner of society, from trendy fusion cuisine to Caribbean rhythms in pop music to the hyphenated identities that signify ethnic Americans, illuminating the lived experience of ties to a dominant culture blending with the cultural codes of a Third World culture. Framing Cultural Hybridity in post colonial context; Among postcolonial theorists, there is a wide consensus that hybridity arose out of the culturally internalized interactions between Ã¢â¬Å"colonizersÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the colonizedÃ¢â¬ and the dichotomous formation of these identities. Considered by some the father of hybrid theory, Homi Bhabha argued that colonizers and the colonized are mutually dependent in constructing a shared culture. His text The Location of Culture (1994) suggested that there is a Ã¢â¬Å"Third Space of EnunciationÃ¢â¬ in which cultural systems are constructed. In this claim, he aimed to create a new language and mode of describing the identity of Selves and Others. Bhabha says: It becomes crucial to distinguish between the semblance and similitude of the symbols across diverse cultural experiences such as literature, art, music, Ritual, life, death and the social specificity of each of these productions of meaning as they circulate as signs within specific contextual locations and social systems of value. The transnational dimension of cultural transformation migration, diaspora, displacement, relocation makes the process of cultural translation a complex form of signification. The naturalized, unifying discourse of nation, peoples, or authentic folk tradition, those embedded myths of cultures particularity, cannot be readily referenced. The great, though unsettling, advantage of this position is that it makes you increasingly aware of the construction of culture and the invention of tradition. In using words like Ã¢â¬Å"diaspora, displacement, relocation,Ã¢â¬ Bhabha illustrates the dynamic nature of culture, and the flimsy consistency of the historical narratives that cultures rely upon to draw boundaries and define themselves. As a result, culture cannot be defined in and of it, but rather must be seen within the context of its construction. More significantly, Bhabha draws attention to the reliance of cultural narratives upon the other. In illuminating this mutual construction of culture, studies of hybridity can offer the opportunity for a counter-narrative, a means by which the dominated can reclaim shared ownership of a culture that relies upon them for meaning. This theoretical erspective will serve as the foundation for the considerations explored in this paper, employing hybridity as a powerful tool for liberation from the domination imposed by bounded definitions of race, language, and nation. RACE: Racial hybridity, or the integration of two races which are assumed to be distinct and separate entities, can be considered first in terms of the physical body. Historically, the corporeal hybrid was birthed from two symbolic poles, a bodily representation of colonizer and colonized. These mixed births, mestizo, mulatto, muwallad, were stigmatized as a physical representation of impure blood, and this racism long served as a tool of power that maintained that even in this blending of two bodies, just Ã¢â¬Å"one dropÃ¢â¬ of black blood would deem the body impure and alien, an abomination. Institutionalized racism created a perpetual state of ambiguity and placelessness for the hybrid body and prevented cultural inclusion via race. However, the expanse of immigration since colonialism and the spectrum of shades of visible difference point to an increasingly hybrid populace in which these classifications of black and white no longer carry the same power of representation, yet the old labels persist. This labeling is significant as it elucidates the continuing power of racial labels in a society set on fixing bodies in racial space by binding them to labels, which are understood to contain fixed truths. I argue that utilizing the conceptual tool of hybridity to deconstruct these labels allows a means by which hybrid individuals can come together in powerful solidarity, rather than allowing their ambiguous place in racial space to render them invisible. Harnessing racial hybridity to project the simultaneously unique but common experience of hybridity can be a means by which the individual subject can join to a marginal community through stories and partial memories. Furthermore, racial hybridity must harness the dualistic experience of passing, or being mistaken for a race other than oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own. All identities involve passing to some extent, in that a subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s self can never truly match its image, but racial passing implicitly deconstructs the boundaries of Black and White. In passing, hybridity might function not as a conflict or struggle between two racial identities, but instead as constant movement between spaces, passing through and between identity itself without origin or arrival. The freedom to move between identities carries its own power in defying the claims of essentialized racial identity. Furthermore, the bounded labels of race do not account for the historical and geographic narratives that lie behind each body and inform their identity. In Ã¢â¬Å"Black Africans and Native AmericansÃ¢â¬ , Jack Forbes explores the disconnect between racial labels and the consciousness of the bodies behind them using Native Americans and Africans as examples by which Ã¢â¬Å"groups are forced into arbitrary categories render their ethnic heritage simple rather than complexÃ¢â¬ . As a result, hybridity calls into question the boundaries of racial consciousness as a hybrid consciousness defies the imposed limits of race. The management of these identities becomes its own sort of performance, as the body negotiates each consciousness in different spaces. Again, the ability to play multiple roles, to Ã¢â¬Å"passÃ¢â¬ in different arenas, carries significant power. In embodying the inability to bind identities to race, racial hybridity both in the physical body and in consciousness offers a means of deconstructing the boundaries of dichotomous racial identities. In addition to race, language has long been bound in definitions as a symbol of nation and a mode of exclusion. As a means to connect with other social beings, communicating with language is a meaningful performance in that speaking requires two parties, one to perform language and an audience to observe and absorb language. During colonialism, as the colonizerÃ¢â¬â¢s language dominated national institutions, the sense of being outside and Ã¢â¬Å"otheredÃ¢â¬ was instilled in the colonized as their language and means of communication was stripped away. Now in a time after colonialism, can the colonized ever reclaim a language long lost, or has the colonizerÃ¢â¬â¢s language become their own? Has ownership of the colonizerÃ¢â¬â¢s language expanded over time? FanonÃ¢â¬â¢s theorizing addresses the power of language in the formation of identity as he says, Ã¢â¬Å"To speak . . . means above all to assume a culture, to support the weight of a civilization,Ã¢â¬ . He suggests that speaking the language of the colonizer stands in as acceptance or coercion into accepting a role in culture. Yet in accepting a role, whether by choice or force, the meaning of the culture shifts and evolves. No longer does it Ã¢â¬Å"belongÃ¢â¬ to the colonizer, as it relies upon the colonized to give it shape. Similarly, with the introduction of a new set of users performing a language, the language no longer exists as it was; it has shifted in meaning. Beyond the thematic implications of language, hybridity has inspired an immense movement in literary discourse and understandings of the very way language is managed and owned. Herskovits developed the notion of syncretism, a theory attempting to explain why certain cultural forms are carried and others lost. Similarly, Claude Levi-Strauss developed the term bricolage to describe mixed forms within narratives. Creolization describes the linguistic blending of dominant and subdominant cultures. These examples illustrate the broad realm of studies that have developed simply around the use of hybridized language. In an analysis of the rise of the Ã¢â¬Å"hybrid genreÃ¢â¬ in postmodern literature, Kapchan and Strong say, Ã¢â¬Å"Hybridization has become one such analytic allegory, defining lines of interest and affiliation among scholars of popular and literary culture, perhaps quite unintentionally. The extent to which these authors use the metaphor of hybridity consciously and concisely differs. That they use it, however, qualifies hybridity as one of several tropes, or forms of metaphoric predication, that most epitomize the scholarship of the last decade,Ã¢â¬ . Not only does this observation imply that the body of hybridized literature is growing, harkening to the rising voices and representations of the hybrid, but that hybridity is becoming normalized as an accepted form of literature and the purist notion of genre is diminishing. Furthermore, the use of a colonizerÃ¢â¬â¢s language by the colonized to speak of the crimes of colonialism is its own transgression and act of resistance. In taking ownership of the language, changing the way that it is used, the boundaries of language as belonging to a specific place or race are dissolved. Jahan RamazaniÃ¢â¬â¢s Hybrid Muse is an analytical review of the poetry that has arisen from the hybridization of the English muse with the long-resident muses of Africa, India, the Caribbean, and other decolonizing territories of the British Empire (2001). A hybrid himself, Ramazani suggests that the use of indigenous metaphors, rhythms, creoles, and genres has allowed a new form of poetry that not only speaks of the violence and displacement of colonialism, but embodies it in its very form. These hybrid poetries can be viewed as a gateway to understanding those once deemed unfamiliar, and hybridity of language becomes a way by which to deconstruct borders and relate to collectives across cultural boundaries. Further, hybridity must interrogate the notion that nationality is essential zed in a distinct culture that geographic borders somehow embody inherent knowledge or truth about the people they contain. Mamdani asks, Ã¢â¬Å"How do you tell who is indigenous to the country and who is not? Given a history of migration, what is the dividing line between the indigenous and the nonindigenous? . He addresses the nationalist concern over entitlement to nation, and the indigenous wish to lay claim to culture. I understood that theories of hybridity, in clarifying the shifting and indefinite nature of culture, can serve as a tool that complicate the nationalist exclusionary practice of determining who does and does not have claim to a nation. From health care to immigration, h is arguments resonate loudly with current events. Similarly, we must consider the ways in which the Ã¢â¬Å"thingsÃ¢â¬ that give culture meaning are unfixed and variable, negating essentialist arguments about inherent meanings of culture. In The Predicament of Culture, James Clifford (1988) analyzes sites including anthropology, museums, and travel writing to take a critical ethnography of the West and its shifting relationships with other societies. He demonstrates how Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ national cultures are in fact fictions and mythical narratives, and we must ask the question of representation and who has the authority to speak for a groupÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. In his article Ã¢â¬Å"DiasporasÃ¢â¬ , he suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"The old localizing strategies by bounded community, by organic culture, by region, by center and periphery may obscure as much as they revealÃ¢â¬ . Diaspora is defined as a history of dispersal, myths/memories of the homeland, alienation in the host country, desire for eventual return, ongoing support of the homeland, and a collective identity importantly defined by this relationship. In this consideration of culture, we understand the vast connotations of displacement, from asking which history the diasporic should identify with to asking if it is even possible to return to a homeland one never knew or left long ago. Second, in the representation of culture, be it by petrifying culture in a museum or nailing it to an anthropological account, the risk lies in taking these subjective moments as truths or knowledge. Furthermore, the far-reaching diasporic symbols and narratives that snowball into this thing we call national culture suggest that culture is itself a traveler collecting artifacts from various locations along the way, and its walls are too insubstantial to be used as a means of exclusion. Third and perhaps most significant, hybridity in a postcolonial world muddles the very definitions of culture by which nations define themselves. Given that nationalism is founded upon a collective consciousness from shared loyalty to a culture, one would assume this culture is well-defined. Yet the Ã¢â¬Å"solidÃ¢â¬ roots of historical and cultural narratives that nations rely upon are diasporic, with mottled points of entry at various points in time. An investigation of the roots of cultural symbols like folk stories, religion, and music would reveal sources varied and wide-ranging. Furthermore, culture is defined in relationship to other cultures. Edward SaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Orientalism (1979) offers a strong description of the system by which nations appropriate from others to define themselves. He suggests Orientalism Ã¢â¬Å"has helped to define Europe as its contrasting image, idea, personality, experienceÃ¢â¬ . Using a theoretical framework influenced by GramsciÃ¢â¬â¢s notion of hegemonic culture and FoucaultÃ¢â¬â¢s notion of discourse, Said draws significant attention to the intricate and complex process by which the West must use the East to construct itself, its culture, its meaning. In an illuminating excerpt describing the process of Orientalism, he writes: To formulate the Orient, to give it shape, identity, definition with full recognition of its place in memory, its importance to imperial strategy, and its Ã¢â¬ËnaturalÃ¢â¬â¢ role as an appendage to Europe; to dignify all the knowledge collected during colonial occupation with the title Ã¢â¬Ëcontribution to modern learning; when the natives had neither been consulted nor treated as anything except as pretexts for a text whose usefulness was not to the natives; to feel oneself as a European in command, almost at will, of Oriental history, time, and geography to make out of every observable detail a generalization and out of every generalization an immutable law about the Oriental nature, temperament, mentality, custom, or type; and, above all, to transmute living reality into the stuff of texts, to possess actuality mainly because nothing in the Orient seems to resist oneÃ¢â¬â¢s powers. Ã¢â¬ In a st ream of fragments, Said shows the diverse processes by which dominant cultures are formed at the service of Others. Using words like Ã¢â¬Å"shape,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"definition,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"transmute,Ã¢â¬ he describes the act of defining nation and the artificial nature of these boundaries. Said offers a theoretical means by which to reject nationalist divisions between an us and Them, a West and Other. This conceptualization of the ways in which nations determine not only their own national identities, but the identities of Other is powerful in revealing the inherently hybrid roots of national culture. Studies of national identity are thus essential in deconstructing xenophobic nationalist claims to nation and the resulting miscegenation of immigrant Others. CONCLUSION This discussion draws from the body of postcolonial literature to suggest that studies of cultural hybridity are powerful in probing the bounded labels of race, language, and nation that maintain social inequalities. By examining how the hybrid can deconstruct boundaries within race, language, and nation, I understood that hybridity has the ability to empower marginalized collectives and deconstruct bounded labels, which are used in the service of subordination. In essence, hybridity has the potential to allow once subjugated collectivities to reclaim a part of the cultural space in which they move. Hybridity can be seen not as a means of division or sorting out the various histories and diverse narratives to individualize identities, but rather a means of reimagining an interconnected collective. Like the skin on a living body, the collective body has a surface that also feels and Ã¢â¬Å"Borders materialize as an effect on intensifications of feeling and individual and collective bodies surface through the very orientations we take to objects and others,Ã¢â¬ In the description that Formations our orientations can be shifted, our feelings towards Others transformed, there is a possibility of redefining our exclusionary systems of labeling. Furthermore, breaking down immaterial borders through explorations of hybridity offers the possibility of more effective public policy, one that refers to the broad expanse of its diverse population. Frenkel and Shenhav did an illuminating study on the ways in which studies of hybridity have allowed management and organization studies to manage their longstanding western hegemonic practices and to incorporate postcolonial insights into the organizational literature revolving around the relationships between Orientalism and organizations. The willingness of institutions to reform their long held ideologies in light of a changing world, as well as to consider their work through alternative lenses, is an essential practice in deconstructing the bindings of narratives-as-knowledge. In the boundary-shifting process, there is power in the notion of deconstruction in the service of reconstruction, breaking down boundaries in order to form a more inclusive sense of the collectivity. Furthermore, hybridity asserts the notion that representations of collective identity must be analyzed contextually. When we examine a representation of culture, be it in a film, poem, or speech, we should ask: Who is doing the representing? What are the implications of the representation? Why are they engaging in the process of representation? What is the historical moment that informs the representation? How are they being represented? In addition to the questions explored in this paper, I would recommend applying theories of hybridity to a realm beyond race and nation, in order to consider alternative boundaries such as gender and sexuality. The work of hybrid theorists from Bhabha to Said suggests that there is a vast intellectual landscape for cultural inquiries like these. Our mission must be to continue this work and to delve deeper. Cultural studies have great potential to liberate us from the socially-given boundaries that so stubbornly limit our capacity for thought and discussion, but we must take time to join in a collective critique of the knowledge we ingest and disperse. After all, the greatest power lies in the heart of the collective.